As for the condition say [meaning we will say] what exists:
People fall into three categories, friends – and they are few in number, acquaintances – and they are most damaging to you, and those whom you do not know and they do not know you, and you are safe from them and they are safe from you.
Friendship has seven conditions:
1) That he [the friend] is a sunni [a follower of the sunna of our beloved Messenger of Allaah, may Allaah bless him and grant him peace, entailing he is not of the Shia’ sect or any other group that are known by any name other than Muslims] in his [doctrine of belief, that is he believes in the principles of faith and creed as understood through The Book of Allaah, and the sunnah of His beloved Messenger, may Allaah bless him and grant him peace].
2) That he is a man who is upright in his religion, were he an innovator or a transgressor he may take his companion the same way or the people may think this of him as ‘a man on the path of his friend’.
3) That he is a man of intelligence as the company of an imbecile [fool, stupid] is a catastrophe [calamity, misfortune].
4) That he is a man of good character, if he is of offensive character and you do not believe [it possible] in [the existence of] his enmity, then test him by purposefully making him angry and if he is angered then abandon his company.
5) That he is sound hearted when present and when absent, that he is not spiteful, nor envious, nor rebellious [away from good] towards evil, and nor two-faced.
6) That he is constant [in fulfilling] his promises [obligations], without weariness [boredom] nor [being] whimsical [prone to sudden change].
7) That he defend your rights as you defend his as there is no good in the company of one who does not see to you the truth [rights] as you do to him [meaning one who does not treat you as you treat him, as well as legal rights also in the sharing of wealth, food, advice and all else between brothers].
The Rights of the Friend are Seven:
1) The sharing of wealth until one is not in need of a thing without the other.
2) The benefit of the self in the judgement of things [purposes, goals, aims] and taking precendence for his things over yours [meaning that he give priority to your business over his].
3) Consent of him in his utterances, aid in him of his possessions from that which is neither contravening nor of dispute as the contravening bears hatred.
4) Forgiveness of his errors and tenderness towards his deficiencies as the one who seeks a friend without deficiencies will remain friendless.
5) Advice in his religion and world [affairs, a proof of friendship is honesty in a relationship, friends need to tell each other of their weakness in order that improvement of behaviour and character can occur, it can be considered hypocrisy to deny this service to a friend when he is in need of it – meaning that he needs to be counseled and shown his errors].
6) Purity in sincere affection, outwardly, inwardly, in presence, in absence, and defence of him in his absence.
7) Prayers for him in his absence.
And for the rest [meaning those with whom friendship and companionship have been made halal as is revealed in the Book of Allaah the Exalted: “O You who believe! Take not the Jews and Christians as friends, and protectors. They are only friends of one another. And the one who does is one of them. Verily, Allaah does not guide the Oppressors – people of injustice and tyranny”. (5:51). The Messenger of Allaah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘The fires of a believer and unbelievers should not be within sight of one another.’ The scholars have said it’s meaning is that there should be no friendship, counsel or living together between a believer and an unbeliever.
The rights of the Muslim to the Muslim are ten: That he greets him when he meets him, that he visits him when he is sick, and accepts his invitation if he invites him, and blesses him if he sneezes, and prays his funeral prayer if he dies, and fulfils his promise to him if he promised, and advises him if he needs advice, and loves for him from the good that which he loves for himself, and deters him from evil if he is able to do so, for the Muslim is he from whose tongue and hand the Muslims are safe. And to give generously from the good he has if he is able in his religion and his world[-ly affairs], and if he is not in any such position then good words [will suffice]. And if he is from his relatives, then to increase the rights of that blood-relationship [kinship] by performance of good deeds, by visits and good speech and tolerance in ill treatment.
And if he is a neighbour or a guest then to him are the rights of the guest and neighbour.
And if he is a slave, then to him are the rights of kindness, mercy, with that the fulfilment of his rights of his clothes and his food [in the Sharee’ah, the master is obliged to provide his slaves with adequate food, clothing, accommodation and security].
And the obligations of love are three: that he is the first to greet his brother with the Salaam [this is reserved exclusively for use between Muslims as clearly stated in the Risaalah of Ibn Abi Zaid al-Qayrawani, in fact he says the Muslim should not initiate greeting a jew or a christian and if he forgetfully does, should not wait for a reply, he may return the kafir’s greeting with ‘alaika’ or ‘upon you be a stone’ meaning the stone of the hadd punishment of zinna] and to make space for him to sit and to address him by affectionate names.
And the totality of good character is three things: refraining from hurting [others], tolerance in being hurt, and giving generously and amicability. And the totality of all this is that you desire to be for your brother what you desire him to be for you. And the most excellent of the excellencies [Afdhal ul-Fadhaa’il] is that you reconnect with the one who has cut off from you, that you give to the one who has deprived you, and that you forgive of whom oppressed you. He doesn’t exonerate [meaning he does not allow the ignoring of a dispute, saying it’s not my affair, for we are ordered when two, or more, Muslims are in dispute to make amends between them and if need be side with the one who is right against the one who is wrong] the Muslim who has forsaken his brother for more than three nights without the Salaam, [as for] the emerging of the two forsakers, the better of them is he who initiates the first greeting and forsakes the companions of bid’ah – innovation and fusooq – transgression, in order to love for [in the way of] Allaah and hate for [in the way of] Allaah [this is] from [having] the faith.
Issue: two are not to talk confidentially without the other [the third] as that will sadden him, either in travel nor in settled areas, similarly, three will not talk confidentially without the other [the fourth] and all of them will have increased their unified intensification of his sorrow and it becomes an obligation to prevent this.
Ibn Juzay al-Kalbee, may Allaah have mercy on him, wrote his book Al-Qawaaneen al-Fiqheeyyah in Andalus, it is a book of fiqh of the four classical madhaahib, based around the madhhab of Imaam Malik ibn Anas. It gives all the opnions where and if they differed between the madhaahib.